Curriculum Vitae

Department of Anthropology
University of California
Santa Barbara, CA 93106-3210

Academic Employment

Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara
Full Professor 1980
Professor Emeritus 1994

Fall 1998
Universiti Brunei Darussalam
Visiting Professor


1949-1952 Washington High School, Sioux Falls, South Dakota
1952-1954 El Camino College, Gardena, California (part time)
1959-1961 El Camino College, Gardena, California
1961-1964 University of California, Los Angeles
1964-1969 Cornell University


1963 B.A. Anthropology, UC Los Angeles
1964 M.A. Anthropology, UC Los Angeles
1969 Ph.D. Anthropology, Cornell University


1963 B.A. with Highest Honors
1963 Election to Phi Beta Kappa
2015 Selected as WHS Alumni of Distinction

Field Research and Dissertation

Three months summer survey, Mazahua Indians of Mexico, 1963.

Fifteen months social anthropological research in Brunei (Borneo) on the Brunei Malays, combined with seven months of archival research in London on the history of Brunei.

Dissertation was an analytic history of change in the government and society of a Bornean empire-state, with special emphasis on the period after the middle of the 19th century.

Three months survey of socio-cultural impact of tourism on Bali, Indonesia, 1978.

Brief research visits to Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia in 1972, 1979, 1983.

Part-time research on ethnicity/race/gender in a university faculty setting, 1991-present.


Southeast Asia, especially Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

Social and political anthropology, history, human universals, ethnicity and ethnocentrism.

Foreign Languages

Malay-Indonesian, Spanish, German.

Courses Taught

Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia (lecture and seminar)
Current ethnological theory (undergraduate seminar)
Political anthropology
Social structure and historical process (undergraduate seminar)
Social anthropology (graduate seminar)
Primate and human sexual behavior (undergraduate seminar)
Peoples and Cultures of Asia
Anthropology of History (lecture and seminar)
Field Methods (graduate seminar)
Anthropology of Tourism
Corporations and Society
Human Universals (lecture and seminar)
Human Nature (seminar)
Comparative Ethnicity
Psychological Foundations of Social Structure
Social Thought

Professional and Administrative Activities

Member, Borneo Research Council, 1969 to present
Editor, Borneo Research Bulletin, November 1973 - August 1975
Departmental Vice Chairman, 1974-1975
Departmental Chairman, 1975-1978
Departmental Acting Chairman, 1981, Spring and Fall
Member and Chair, Human Subjects Committee, 1979-1984
Acting Director, Asian-American Studies, 1986-1989
Member, Ad hoc Review Committees - Academic Senate, various years
President, UCSB Chapter, Phi Beta Kappa 1988-1990, 1996-1997
Member, Vice Chair, and Chair, Committee on Academic Personnel, 1991-1994
Fulbright Student Selection Panel (West Coast) 1991, 1992, 1999
NSF Review Panel 1992, 1993
Consultant, Ministry of Education, Brunei (5 months), 1994-95
Member, La Jolla Group for Explaining the Origin of Humans (1997-)


1968 Two Colonial Office Memoranda on the History of Brunei. Jour. of the Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society XLI: 83-116.

1968 Kampong Ayer: The 60-Year Battle with the Land People. The Daily Star, March 4, 1968.

1969 Hugh Low on the History of Brunei. Brunei Museum Journal 1(1):147-56.

1969 The Social Structure of Nineteenth Century Brunei. Brunei Museum Journal 1(1): 166079.

1970 Social Stratification in Brunei. South-East Asian Journal of Sociology 3:27-38.

1970 Brunei: The Structure and History of a Bornean Malay Sultanate. Special Monograph of the Monograph of the Brunei Museum.

1971 The Coronation of Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam, 1918. Brunei Museum Journal 2(3):74-80.

1971 Four Brief Notes on the History of Brunei. Brunei Museum Journal 2(3):173-176.

1971 Ecology and Social Structure. Man 6:689-690.

1971 Brunei and the Bajau. Borneo Research Bulletin 3(2):55-8.

1972 Ampuan in Brunei. Brunei Museum Journal 2(4):207-8.

1972 Another Affair of James Brooke? Brunei Museum Journal 2(4):206.

1973 Voluntary association: a further comment. American Anthropologist 75(1):309-10.

1973 Maps and the History of Brunei. Brunei Museum Journal 3(1):88-90.

1973 Hereditary Rank and Ethnic History: an Analysis of Brunei Historiography. Journal of Anthropological Research 29(2):113-22.

1973 Inter-hierarchical Commissions in a Bornean Plural Society. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science 1(1):97-116.

1973 Social Classification and History. Comparative Studies in Society and History 15(4):437-47.

1974 Sultan Mumin's Will and Related Documents. Brunei Museum Journal 3(2):156-170.

1974 Corporations and Social Classification. Current Anthropology 15(1):29-52.

1976 Social Structure, History, and Historiography. In Studies in Borneo Societies Social Process and Anthropological Explanation, ed. by G. N. Appell, published by Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University, pp. 44-50.

1976 Principles of Social Structure: Southeast Asia. London: Duckworth; Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

1977 Social Classification and History: India and Burma. In Essays in Anthropology in Honor of Morris Edward Opler. Papers in Anthropology 18(2):201-16.

1978 Brunei in Comparative Perspective. Sarawak Museum Journal 26(47):135-160.

1979 Iban Leadership. Sarawak Museum Journal 27:15-23.

1980 Brunei Revisited. Borneo Research Bulletin 12:24-25.

1980 Hiranyagarbha--The Hindu Cosmic Egg--and Brunei's Royal Line. The Brunei Museum Journal 4:30-37.

1982 Social Organization and Biology. Man 17:551-54.

1984 Brunei on the Morrow of Independence. Asian Survey 24:201-208.

1984 More on Corporations. American Ethnologist 11:813-815.

1984 Brunei through the Sha'er and the silsilah. Solidarity 99:10-15

1984 Patterns in Brunei History and Culture. Borneo Research Bulletin 16:28-33.

1987 Are Prescriptively Monogamous Societies Effectively Monogamous? (Senior author.) In Human Reproductive Behavior: A Darwinian Perspective. Ed. by L Betzig, M.B. Mulder, and P. Turke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 153-159.

1987 Brunei. Encyclopedia of Asian History. Macmillan. Vol. 1: 179-80.

1987 False Images. American Anthropologist 90(2):421-422.

1988 Hierarchy, History, and Human Nature: The Social Origins of Historical Consciousness University of Arizona Press.

1988 The Penis Inserts of Southeast Asia. (Senior author.) Center for South and South East Asian Studies, Occasional Paper. U.C. Berkeley.

1988 Tribe-Sultanate Relations. Expedition 30(1): 45-50.

1990 The Penis Pin: An Un-solved Problem in the Relations between the Sexes in Borneo. Female and Male in Borneo, ed. by V. H. Sutlive. (Reprinted in Culture and Human Sexuality, 1993.)

1991 Human Universals. McGraw-Hill and Temple University Press. (Kindle edition 2017)

1992 [Comment on Universalism and Relativism in Asian Studies] Journal of Asian Studies 51:114-115.

1993 Darwin and the Pursuit of Truth. Chronicle of Higher Education April 3:4.

1994 Anthropologists, Comparison, the West, and the Individual. Man 29: 975-976.

1995 Mechanisms for the Maintenance of Traditional Elites in Brunei, to the Eve of Independence. In From Buckfast to Borneo: Essays Presented to Father Robert Nicholl on the 85th Anniversary of his Birth 27 March 1995. Ed. by Victor T. King and A.V.M. Horton. Hull University, Centre for South-East Asian Studies, The University of Hull. Pp. 408-419.

1995 [Parapsychological Research.] Los Angeles Times Nov. 10 Letter.

1996 Human Universals. Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. New York: Henry Holt. Vol. 2, pp. 607-612.

1996 Problems and Prospects in the Development of Theory in Anthropology: The Case of Social Structure. California Anthropologist v. 23, n. 2, pp. 25-34. PDF

1996 Immigrants in Hong Kong. Los Angeles Times April 29 Letter.

1997 Are Ethnicity and Ethnocentrism Natural? (Published Address) Southwestern Anthropological Association Newsletter, v. 38, No. 1 (June).

1997 The Ethnocentric Syndrome. AAA Newsletter (Psych. Anthro. Column, Summary of Address.) October, p.49.

1997 [Letter on Jargon] Chronicle of Higher Education, April 4, B 12-13.

1997 Focus on Race and Racism. (Letter) Anthropology Newsletter Oct., p. 6.

1998 My Long Association with Brunei. Ungkayah, Oct.-Dec.

1998 On the Sexual Motive in History. Borneo Research Bulletin 29:195-196.

1998 Issues in the Nature of Brunei Society and Polity. Janang 7:85-90.

1999 Human Universals. The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, pp. 382-4.

1999 Human Nature and History, History and Theory 38:138-157. (Reprinted in The Return of Science: Evolution, History, and Theory (2002))

1999 Burials (Letter), Los Angeles Times Nov. 10.

2000 Women's Lives (Letter), Los Angeles Times Jan. 9.

2000 Evidence Points to Peru for Reparation Responsibility (Letter), Santa Barbara News-Press April 25.

2001 Human Universals and Their Implications. In Being Humans: Anthropological Universality and Particularity in Transdisciplinary Perspectives. Ed. by Neil Roughley, Walter de Gruyter. Pp. 156-174.

2002 Ethnicity and Ethnocentrism: Are They Natural? In Race and Ethnicity: An Anthropological Focus on the U.S. and the World. Ed. By Raymond Scupin. Prentice-Hall. Pp. 90-101.

2004 Human Universals, Human Nature & Human Culture. Daedalus Fall: 47-54.

2008 Portraiture and Social Stratification. In World Art Studies: Exploring Concepts and Approaches. Ed. by Kitty Zijlmans and Wilifried van Damme, Valiz, Amsterdam. Pp. 325-342.

2010 The Universal People. In Evolution, Literature & Film: A Reader.  Ed. by Brian Boyd, Joseph Carroll, and Jonathan Gottschall. New York: Columbia University Press.  Pp. 83-95. (Chapter reprinted from Human Universals 1991).

2011 How It Came To Be, or How I came to write Brunei: The Structure and History of a Bornean Malay Sultanate. Borneo Research Bulletin 42:308-313.

2012 Ethnicity and Ethnocentrism: Are They Natural? (revised). In Race and Ethnicity: The United States and the World, Second Edition. Ed. by Raymond Scupin. Boston: Pearson. Pp. 81-94.

2012 Allen Maxwell: A Personal Note. Borneo Research Bulletin 43:31-33.

2013 Human Universals. Theory in Social and Cultural Anthropology: An Encyclopedia. Eds. R. Jon McGee and Richard L. Warms. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.  Pp. 410-413.

2017 Human Universals (1991): Reflections on its Whence and Whither.

Book Reviews and non-professional publications